Image result for mice

 

Fellowshipofminds 27 Sept 2017


A new study has pinpointed the aluminum in vaccines as the agent in triggering autism, especially in boys.

The study was conducted by a team of four scientists at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC, Canada:

  • Dan Li, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Lucija Tomljenovic, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Yongling Li,  Dept. of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences.
  • Christopher A. Shaw, Dept. of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Program in Experimental Medicine, and Program in Neuroscience.

The four scientists reported their findings in an article titled, “Subcutaneous injections of aluminum at vaccine adjuvant levels activate innate immune genes in mouse brain that are homologous with biomarkers of autism,” in the peer-reviewed Journal of Inorganic BiochemistryVolume 177, December 2017, pp. 39-54.

Here’s a summary of the study:

  • Vaccines contain aluminum adjuvant — a pharmacological agent added to a drug to increase or aid its effect.
  • The scientists injected aluminum into mice.
  • The aluminum had neuro-inflammatory effects on the mice’s frontal cortex.
  • The frontal cortex is  involved in emotional and social functions which are impaired in autism.
  • Male mice are especially susceptible to aluminum’s neuro-toxic effects.

ABSTRACT

Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by immune dysfunction. It is manifested in early childhood, during a window of early developmental vulnerability where the normal developmental trajectory is most susceptible to xenobiotic insults. Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants are xenobiotics with immuno-stimulating and neurotoxic properties to which infants worldwide are routinely exposed.

To investigate Aluminum′s immune and neurotoxic impact in vivo, we tested the expression of 17 genes which are implicated in both autism and innate immune response in brain samples of Aluminum-injected mice in comparison to control mice.

Several key players of innate immunity, such as cytokinesCCL2IFNG and TNFA, were significantly upregulated, while the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) inhibitor NFKBIB, and the enzyme controlling the degradation of the neurotransmitteracetylcholine (ACHE), were downregulated in Aluminum-injected male mice. Further, the decrease of the NF-κBinhibitor and the consequent increase in inflammatory signals, led to the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway resulting in the release of chemokineMIP-1A and cytokines IL-4 and IL-6.

It thus appears that Aluminum triggered innate immune system activation and altered cholinergic activity in male mice, observations which are consistent with those in autism. Female mice were less susceptible to Aluminum exposure as only the expression levels of NF-κB inhibitor and TNFA were altered. Regional patterns of gene expression alterations also exhibited gender differences, as frontal cortex was the most affected area in males and cerebellum in females.

Thus, Aluminum adjuvant promotes brain inflammation and males appear to be more susceptible to Aluminum′s toxic effects.

GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT

Upon peripheral injection, aluminum activates the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB) pathway in the brain, resulting in the release of proinflammatory molecules. The increased immunoinflammatory signal downregulates the activity of acetylcholinesterase to activate acetylcholine-mediated immunosuppression. If immunosuppression is not achieved, the excessive immunoinflammatory response may impair neurodevelopmental processes producing autistic pathology.

Image 1

Some other observations from the article:

  • Aluminum is an environmental toxin with demonstrated negative impact on human health, especially the nervous system, to which humans are regularly exposed.
  • Aluminum can enter the human body through various sources including food, drinking water, many infant formulas, cosmetic products, cooking utensils and pharmaceutical products including antacids and vaccines.
  • Why aluminum in vaccines is particularly toxic: Compared to dietary aluminum of which only ~ 0.25% is absorbed into systemic circulation, aluminum from vaccines is poorly excreted by the body and may be absorbed at over 50% efficiency in the short term and at nearly 100% efficiency long-term. Thus, vaccine-derived Al has a much greater potential to produce toxic effects in the body than that obtained through diet.
  • Aluminum in vaccines affect other body organs, not just the brain: In a series of experiments, a French group found that aluminum injected in vaccine-relevant amounts into 8–10 week old mice (mimicking the amount that adult humans receive through vaccinations) is able to travel to distant organs including the spleen and the brain, where it can be detected one year after injection.
  • Furthermore, aluminum not just damages specific body organs, it triggers the body’s “systemic inflammatory responses.”
  • Even dietary aluminum is deleterious, shown to accumulate in our central nervous system over time, resulting in Alzheimer’s type disease. Aluminum’s neurotoxic effect has also been observed in experimental animals fed equivalent amounts of aluminum to what humans consume through a typical Western diet.

The study concludes:

Altogether, these observations show that the adjuvant form of Aluminum has a unique potential to induce neuroimmune disorders, including those of the autism spectrum.

Given that infants worldwide are regularly exposed to Aluminum adjuvants through routine pediatric vaccinations, it seemed warranted to reassess the neurotoxicity of Aluminum in order to determine whether Aluminum may be considered as one of the potential environmental triggers involved in ASD (autism spectrum disorders).

You can read/download the entire article in PDF format here.