4 Feb 2018 dailymail.com

National Geographic


Scientists have discovered one of the keys to the incredible speeds of the world’s fastest animal, the cheetah.

The American Museum of Natural History published research today that points to the cheetah’s inner ear as the reason the animal can reach speeds of up to 65 miles an hour.

The research, which is the first of its kind, led scientists to new details about the cheetah’s inner ear, which is responsible for maintaining balance and posture while the animal is running.

New research from the American Museum of Natural History has found that the modern cheetah's inner ear has adapted to help the animal become faster

New research from the American Museum of Natural History has found that the modern cheetah’s inner ear has adapted to help the animal become faster

The research was published in the journal Scientific Reports.

The scientists who led the research concluded that the inner ear design modern cheetahs have evolved relatively recently.

They conducted the study by using high-resolution x-ray CT technology to scan 21 specimens’ skulls.

More than 12 other species were examined during this phase of the research.

Scientists used the scans to make 3-D virtual representations of the species’ inner ear shapes.

They found the inner ear shapes of living cheetahs to be markedly different than those of other wild cats living today.

Study author John Flynn said: ‘This distinctive inner ear anatomy reflects enhanced sensitivity and more rapid responses to head motions, explaining the cheetah’s extraordinary ability to maintain visual stability and to keep their gaze locked in on prey even during incredibly high-speed hunting.’

HOW CAN THE CHEETAH’S INNER EAR MAKE IT FASTER?

The inset shows the cheetah's inner ear, which affects the animal's balance

The inset shows the cheetah’s inner ear, which affects the animal’s balance

Scientists have discovered one of the keys to the incredible speeds of the world’s fastest animal, the cheetah.

The balance system, in vertebrates’ inner ears, consists of three canals that are semicircular.

The canals contain sensory hair cells and fluid.

The cells detect head movements.

Each of the three canals is angled differently.

They are all especially sensitive to distinct movements: one is sensitive to up-and-down movements, one to side-to-side movements and the last to tilting movements that go from one side to the other.

New research from the American Museum of Natural History has found that two of the three semicircular canals in the inner ear of the modern cheetah are of different lengths than those of extinct species.

Scientists believe the animal’s inner ear design evolved over time to make it faster.

 A car no more changes in innovation than does an animal unless the information is put into it
The Cheetah either evolved or it was designed?  After all what other animal moves at lightning speed?

Another author named Camille Grohé echoed Flynn’s comments, explaining: ‘If you watch a cheetah run in slow motion, you’ll see incredible feats of movement: its legs, its back, its muscles all move with such coordinated power.

‘But its head hardly moves at all.

The inner ear facilitates the cheetah’s remarkable ability to maintain visual and postural stability while running and capturing prey at speeds of up to 65 miles per hour.

‘Until now, no one has investigated the inner ear’s role in this incredible hunting specialization.’

Grohé credited the equipment her team used to ‘look deep inside the skulls of modern and fossil cat species’ with the scientists’ new discovery.

‘We have discovered that there was a decoupling of locomotor and sensory system adaptations to high-speed predation in the cheetah lineage,’ Grohé explained.

She noted that this adaptation could have been driven by competition with other animals.

‘The living cheetah’s ancestors have evolved slender bones that would allow them to run very fast and then an inner ear ultra-sensitive to head movements to hold their head still, enabling them to run even faster,’ Grohé explained.

‘Get ready to meet one seriously fierce, fast and fur-ocious feline with these fascinating cheetah facts!

1) Nearly all wild cheetahs can be found in sub-Saharan Africa, where they roam open, grassy savannah plains and open forests. A small population lives in northeastern Iran, although only a few dozen remain here?

2) These big cats’ bodies grow to between 1.1m and 1.4m metres long, plus a tail measuring 65cm to 80cm. Their weight ranges from 34kg to 54kg, males being slightly heavier.

cheetah facts

3) Cheetahs have a pale yellow coat with black dots on the upper parts, and are white on the underbelly. Their faces are distinguished by prominent, black lines that curve from the inner corner of each eye to the outer corners of the mouth.

4) The fastest land animal in the world, a cheetah can reach 112km/h in just three seconds – that’s faster than a sports car accelerates!

Its body has evolved (was designed) for speed, with long legs, an elongated spine, adapted claws to grip the ground and a long tail for balance.

5) Cheetahs are carnivores and live off other animals they find on Africa’s plains, including rabbits, warthogs, springboks, gazelles and birds.

cheetah facts

6) These fierce felines hunt during the day to avoid competition from other powerful predators such as lions, hyenas and leopards. And boy, can they hunt! First, they use their exceptional eyesight to scan their surroundings before quietly stalking their chosen prey. Then, when the time is right, they sprint from cover, knock down their victim and kill it with a bite to the throat.

7) As sprinting at such mega speeds uses a lot of energy, a cheetah chase is usually limited to 200-300m, and lasts less than a minute.

8) Social animals, cheetahs are usually found in groups, consisting of either a mother and her young, siblings (who stay together for around six months after leaving the mother) or a coalition of males who live and hunt together. Adult females, however, tend to be solitary and only meet with males to mate.

cheetah facts

9) Females usually give birth to between two to eight cubs at a time. She nurses her youngsters in a lair hidden by tall vegetation, until they are 16 to 24 months old and able look after themselves.

10) Sadly, this beautiful animal is threatened by loss of habitat and prey, as well as conflict with humans. As a result, the cheetah is classified as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red list, and, today, an estimated 9,000-12,000 remain in Africa.

 

Picture credits
Cheetah family in grass: Chris Johns. Cheetah chasing prey: Stu Porter, Dreamstime. Cheetah watching: Heinrich Van Den Berg, Dreamstime.