Terms of Joining

On this date 23 Aug 2007 I join to the case files the translations of the verbal reports made in English by the police sniffer dog trainer Martin Grime, referring to the sniffer dog inspections carried out with the cadaver odour detection dog Eddie and the human blood detection dog, Keela.

These translations were made working from the audio-visual recordings of each of the inspections.

These terms of joining were elaborated and will be signed.

Portimao 23 August 2007

Inspector Paiva

2462 to 2465- Analysis of the cadaver & blood dog searches in 5A and in the vehicles (in Portuguese)
09-Processos Vol IX Pages 2462 to 2465
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Verbal Report by Martin Grime Relating to the Searches Carried out with the Dogs in the Ocean Club Apartments
 
Transcription/Translation

 
Apartment 5 A

Ok…what was done was we deployed the victim recovery dog into the apartment and by experience and the training of the dog what I first noticed is that as soon as I came in that the dog was very excited and as a handler I can pick up his body language etc and it would appear to me that as soon as he has come into the house he’s picked up a scent that he recognises and he has then gone through the apartment trying to source where that scent source has come from and as he has worked through the house the only two places where he picks up enough scent to give me the bark alert are in this bedroom, in this corner where he was barking.

What we have to be able to understand in a situation such as this is in a hot climate with the apartment being closed down, the scent will build up in a particular area. If there isn’t a scent source in here, i.e. a physical article where the scent is emitting from, any scent residue will collect in a particular place due to the air movement of the flat, the apartment and what I would say in this case is that there is enough scent in that area there for him to give me a bark indication but the source may not be in that cupboard, the source may well be in this room somewhere else but the air is actually pushing into that corner. But strong indication and I would say its positive for things that he is trained to find, which will be part of a separate debrief.

Moving onto the other rooms once he’s found what he thinks he’s looking for in this room, and we go into the bathroom and come into this bedroom he loses his interest because he’s actually found the source that he was looking for, until we come over here and I think you’ve got it on video that when he first came in he was quite interested in the sofa but he didn’t have access to the back of the sofa and when he’s gone behind the sofa what I saw was that approximately in the centre of the wall where the window is, just along the tile area between the tiles and the wall, he’s been scenting there a lot stronger than he has anywhere else and the when he’s gone out there the second time he has decided yes that’s what I’m looking for and that’s when he has given me the bark indication.

What we should understand with this dog is that he only barks when he finds something, he won’t bark at any other times. He won’t bark at other dogs, he won’t bark at strangers, he won’t bark when somebody knocks on the door or anything like that. The only times I’ve ever known him bark since I’ve got him as a small puppy a) for his dinner and that’s just excitement and that’s one of the training methods we use to teach to bark when we want him to and when he actually finds something, he won’t bark at other dogs, he won’t bark at strangers, he won’t bark when somebody knocks on the door or something like that, so again I would say that’s a positive indication.

The second dog that we’ve seen work today is the crime scene dog Keela.

She will only indicate to me when she has found human blood, only human blood and it is only blood and there must be something there physically for her to be able to alert to me that’s she has actually found something. At this point over here where the victim recovery dog has indicated, as you saw on the video, the crime scene dog had actually given me what we call a passive indication where she freezes in this spot here which would indicate to me that there is some human blood there. She will find blood that’s historically very old and she will find anybody’s blood, any human blood, which is important to make sure that everybody knows.

The fact that there is other scientific methods being used may stop you recovering any DNA but if you try we’ll see what happens. But she is very, very good and when she indicates there is always blood there.

Apartment B

We’ve searched this apartment with the victim recovery dog and he has shown no interest in the flat for what he he trained to find at all so we finished.

Apartment 5 D

We’ve put the victim recovery dog through this apartment, the only interest has been in some food that he has found, other than that there is no interest in anything that he has been taught to tell me that he has found.

Apartment H5

We searched this apartment and the dog hasn’t shown any interest in this particular apartment, apart from around the table, where there was a tennis ball which is how we reward the dog for finding things, as soon as we removed the tennis ball the interest was gone. And so it was a negative search.

Apartment 4 G

We searched the apartment using the victim recovery dog. No response. Negative search.

Outside perimeter of apartments

We’ve searched the outer perimeter, there is some interest here but it will take some further examination to see what’s going on.

2466  – Analysis of the cadaver & blood dog searches in 5A and in the vehicles (in Portuguese)
09 Processos Vol IX Page 2466
09_VOLUME_IXa_Page_2466

Verbal Report of Martin Grime Referring to the Search Made of Vehicles Using the Dogs

Transcription/Translation

Vehicle No 1 – number plate 75-AG-62
Vehicle No2 – number plate 45-49-ER
Vehicle No3 – number plate RI-96-03
Vehicle No4 – number plate 59-DA-27
Vehicle No5 – number plate 96-26-VE
Vehicle No6 – number plate 44-77-KD
Vehicle No7 – number plate VH-24-22
Vehicle No8 – number plate 57-12-HP
Vehicle No9 – number plate 10-91-FP
Vehicle No10 – number plate 07-50-UI

We examined the cars with the dog and the only reaction we got was in relation to the car in the extreme corner. I will indicate that it was the Renault. What we have is a reaction to this door here, where (the dog) lifts its head in the air and sniffs for the objects which it has been trained to detect. And when we limit our movements, the dog chooses this car, this door. It is important to know that the dog chooses the odour that comes from the lower part of the door. Based on this information, I will try to place the dog inside the car.

2467 – Analysis of the cadaver & blood dog searches in 5A and in the vehicles (in Portuguese
09 Processos Vol IX Page 2467
09_VOLUME_IXa_Page_2467

Verbal Report by Martin Grime Referring to the Searches Carried Out with the Dogs in the Gymnasium 1 + 2

Transcription/Translation

Apparently without verbal report.

2468 – Analysis of the cadaver & blood dog searches in 5A and in the vehicles (in Portuguese
09 Processos Vol IX Page 2468
09_VOLUME_IXa_Page_2468

Verbal Report by Martin Grime Referring to the Searches Carried Out with the Dogs in the McCann’s Residence, Rua das Flores 27.

Transcription/Translation

Apparently without verbal report.

2469 – Analysis of the cadaver & blood dog searches in 5A and in the vehicles (in Portuguese
09 Processos Vol IX Page 2469
09_VOLUME_IXa_Page_2469

Verbal Report by Martin Grime Referring to the Searches Carried Out with the Dogs Murat 1 + 2.

Transcription/Translation

Apparently without verbal report.

2470 – Analysis of the cadaver & blood dog searches in 5A and in the vehicles (in Portuguese
09- Processos Vol IX Page 2470
09_VOLUME_IXa_Page_2470

Verbal Report by Martin Grime Referring to the Searches Carried Out with the Dogs Murat 3 + 4.

Transcription/Translation

We made a search of the house and there was no indication on the part of the dog of having found anything for which it had received detection training

2471 – Analysis of the cadaver & blood dog searches in 5A and in the vehicles (in Portuguese
09 Processos Vol IX Page 2471
09_VOLUME_IXa_Page_2471

Verbal Report by Martin Grime Referring to Searches Carried Out With the Dogs. Various McCann.

Transcription/Translation

Apparently without verbal report.

2472 – Analysis of the cadaver & blood dog searches in 5A and in the vehicles (in Portuguese
09 Processos Vol IX Page 2472
09_VOLUME_IXa_Page_2472

Verbal Report by Martin Grime Referring to Searches Carried Out With the Dogs.
Waste lands and drains

Transcription/Translation

Apparently without verbal report.

2473 to 2483 Martin Grime –  Canine Search Report  2007.08
>2473-2474 Martin Grime’ Canine Search Report (English) 2007.08

>2475 to 2477 Martin Grime’ Canine Search Report (Portuguese) 2007.08
>2478 2483-Martin Grime’ Canine Search Report (English)
TRANSLATIONS  BY CUSHTY
 

 

 

09-Processo 9 pages 2473 to 2483

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Eddie & Keela Martin Grime ReportAugust 2007

OPERATION TASK CANINE SEARCH REPORT

Personal Profile

I am a ‘retired’ police officer, formally a senior instructor at the South
Yorkshire Police dog training establishment.

I have 35 years experience in the training of dogs both within the police
service and in the public sector.

I specialise in the development and training of specialist search dogs to
include narcotics, explosives, currency, human remains, blood and semen.

I am the Special Advisor to The U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau
of Investigation, in relation to their Canine Forensic Program.

I am a U.K.A.C.P.O. (Association of Chief Police Officers, England and Wales)
accredited police dog training instructor. I am a Subject Matter Expert in
forensic canine search and on the N.P.I.A. (National Policing Improvement
Agency) Expert Advisers database.

I advise Domestic and International Law enforcement agencies on the
operational deployment of Police Dogs in the role of Homicide investigation.

I develop methods of detecting forensically recoverable evidence by the use
of dogs and facilitate training.

I am regularly deployed to homicide cases within my portfolio and form a
‘Specialist Canine Homicide Search Team’ including the S.A.M dog teams
from Dyfed Powys and USA.

I have trained and handle two operational specialist search dogs:
‘Eddie’ is a 7-year-old English Springer spaniel dog who is trained as an
Enhanced Victim Recovery Dog (EVRD).

‘Keela’ is a three-year old English Springer spaniel bitch who is trained as an
Human blood search dog (C.S.I. dog).

OPERATION TASK CANINE DEPLOYMENTS 1-8 AUGUST 2007

On the instruction of The PJ Director, The Portuguese police kept all search
records concerning the deployment of the search dogs. All dog searches were
recorded by video.

The following searches were conducted:

Five apartments at a complex in Praia Da Luz.
Mr. Murat’s property at Pria Da Luz.
Mr. McCann’s Villa at Pria Da Luz ( Present occupancy).
Articles of clothing from Mr. McCann’s residence.
Western beach Pria da Luz.
Eastern Beach Pria Da Luz.
10 Vehicles screened at Portimao.

CANINE SEARCHES AT FIVE APARTMENTS AT PRIA DA LUZ.

All five apartments were searched using the EVRD. The only alert indications
were at apartment 5a, the reported scene.

The EVRD alerted in the:
Rear bedroom of the apartment in the immediate right hand corner by
the door.

Living room, behind sofa.
Veranda outside parent’s bedroom.
Garden area directly under veranda.

My observation of the dog’s behaviour in this instance was that the dog’s
behaviour changed immediately upon opening the front door to the apartment.
He will normally remain in the sit position until released and tasked to search.
On this occasion he broke the stay and entered the apartment with an above
average interest. His behaviour was such that I believed him to be ‘in scent’
and I therefore allowed him to free search without direction to allow him to
identify the source of his interest. He did so alerting in the rear bedroom.

I released him from this and tasked him to continue to search. He did so
alerting in an area to the rear of the sofa in the lounge.

The dog’s behaviour for these alerts led me to the following opinions:

MINISTERIO PUBLICO DE PORTIMAO

The first alert was given with the dogs head in the air without a positive area
being identified. This is the alert given by him when there is no tangible
evidence to be located only the remaining scent.

The second alert was one where a definitive area was evident. The CSI dog
was therefore deployed who gave specific alert indications to specific areas
on the tiled floor area behind the sofa and on the curtain in the area that was
in contact with the floor behind the sofa. This would indicate to the likely
presence of human blood.

The forensic science support officers were then deployed to recover items for
laboratory analysis.

There were no alert indications from the remaining properties. I did however
see the dog search in the kitchen waste bins. These contained meat
foodstuffs including pork and did not result in any false alert response.

CANINE SEARCH OF MR MURAT’S PROPERTY.

The property was subjected to a search for human remains or blood stained
articles. The outside of property was stripped of vegetation and after the
ground being probed was searched by the EVRD dog. The inside of the
property was then searched by the dog. There were no alert indications and
no human remains were located.

CANINE SEARCH OF MR McCANN’S VILLA, PRESENT OCCUPANCY.

The villa interior, garden, and all property within were searched by the EVRD.
The only alert indication given was when the dog located a pink cuddly toy in
the villas lounge. The CSI dog did not alert to the toy when screened
separately.

It is my view that it is possible that the EVRD is alerting to cadaver scent
contamination. No evidential or intelligence reliability can be made from this
alert unless it can be confirmed with corroborating evidence.

BOXES OF CLOTHING 1 PROPERTY FORM MR McCANN’S RESIDENCE.

At a suitable venue numerous boxes of clothing 1 property taken from the
McCann present residence were screened using both the EVRD and the CSI
dog. The venue was screened by both dogs prior to introducing clothing /
property. Neither gave an alert indication. The screening then took place with
the contents of each box being placed around the room in turn. The process
was recorded by video and written records were taken by PJ officers.

The only alert indication was by the EVRD on clothing from one of the boxes. I
am not in possession of the details as these were recorded by the PJ
officers present.

MINISTERIO PUBLICO DE PORTIMAO

It is my view that it is possible that the EVRD is alerting to ‘a cadaver scent’
contaminant. No evidential or intelligence reliability can be made from this
alert unless it can be confirmed with corroborating evidence.

WESTERN BEACH

The beach above the waterline was searched. This extended to areas of
fallen rock and the cliff face as far as the dog could negotiate the incline.
There were no alert indications.

EASTERN BEACH

The beach above the waterline was searched. This extended to areas of
fallen rock and the cliff face as far as the dog could negotiate the incline.
There were no alert indications.

CANINE VEHICLE SEARCHES.

Ten vehicles were screened in an underground multi storey car park at
Portimao.

The vehicles, of which I did not know the owner details, were parked on an empty floor with 20-30 feet between each.

The vehicle placement video recording and management of the process was conducted
by the PJ.

The EVRD was then tasked to search the area. When passing a
vehicle I now know to be hired and in the possession of the McCann family,
the dog’s behaviour changed substantially. This then produced an alert
indication at the lower part of the drivers door where the dog was biting and
barking. I recognise this behaviour as the dog indicating scent emitting from
the inside of the vehicle through the seal around the door.

This vehicle was then subjected to a full physical examination by the PJ and
no human remains were found. The CSI dog was then tasked to screen the
vehicle.

 

An alert indication was forthcoming from the rear driver’s side of the
boot area. Forensic samples were taken by the PJ and forwarded to a
forensic laboratory in the U.K.

It is my view that it is possible that the EVRD is alerting to ‘cadaver scent’
contaminant or human blood scent. No evidential or intelligence reliability can
be made from this alert unless it can be confirmed with corroborating
evidence. The remainder of the vehicles were screened by the EVRD without
any interest being shown. Therefore the CSI dog was not further deployed.

MINISTERIO PUBLICO DE PORTIMAO

SUMMARY

The tasking for this operation was as per my normal Standard Operating
Procedures. The dogs are deployed as search assets to secure evidence and
locate human remains or Human blood.

The dogs only alerted to property associated with the McCann family. The dog
alert indications MUST be corroborated if to establish their findings as
evidence.

Therefore in this particular case, as no human remains were located, the only
alert indications that may become corroborated are those that the CSI dog
indicated by forensic laboratory analysis.

My professional opinion as regards to the EVRD’s alert indications is that it is
suggestive that this is ‘cadaver scent’ contaminant. This does not however
suggest a motive or suspect as cross contamination could be as a result of a
number of given scenarios and in any event no evidential or intelligence
reliability can be made from these alerts unless they can be confirmed with
corroborating evidence.

Vol IX p. 2478
CADAVER AND HUMAN BLOOD DETECTING DOGS
SEARCH ASSET PROFILES
LICENSING AND ACCREDITATIONU.K., A.C.P.O. licensed and accredited cadaver dogs are trained and licensed
on the basis of the relevant section of the Police Dog Training and Care
manual. This involves the training of G.P. (General Purpose) dogs to alert to
the presence of surface deposition and sub-surface deposition to
approximately 2 feet. The dogs are deployed on long lines to search an area
in large numbers.The U.K. has also approximately six Police dog teams that have been trained
exclusively on decomposing pig remains not for human consumption as
specialist dogs to work off the leash to locate human remains in a wider
variety of scenarios. Pig is used as it has been proven in training and
operationally over the last 20 years to be a reliable analogue for human
remains detecting training for dogs. The possession of human remains for the
purpose of training dogs in the U.K. is not acceptable at this point in time.Licensing is derived from anecdotal cases and is scenario based conducted
over a period of a week, twice annually, it is conducted utilising independent
A.C.P.O. authorised assessors. Continuation training is conducted on a dialy
basis and includes simple scent discrimination testing to large scale scenario
based exercises.

Both dogs and I are licensed as two separate working teams. We are
independently tested and licensed annually, normally at six monthly intervals
as a ‘rolling’ programme to ensure best practice is maintained. They are
tested to units of assessment prepared as a stand-alone system as these
dogs are unique. Training records are maintained and are available if
required.

All operational deployments are video recorded including a control sample
find when appropriate.

Vol IX p. 2479

TRAINING
The dog, a scavenger, uses its olfactory system to locate food sources,
identify its young, other pack members, enemies and predators over large
distances. It can track its prey identifying a direction of travel. This entails the
dog being able to discriminate the time difference between footsteps using the
sense of smell. The reward of food and protection / close comfort provides the
basis for a system to be adopted where the dog shows a willingness to
respond in response to the reward. We are thereby able to ‘train’ the dog
using conditioned responses to stimuli. Repetition and reward then ensure
efficiency. Positive and negative reinforcement then shape the required
behaviour in their role. Within the role of these dogs they are utilising basis
survival instinct but have undergone behaviour shaping to alert the handler to
their finding as opposed to consummation. Pavlov’s theory is used in the
case of the E.V.R.D. system of alert. He has been ‘conditioned’ to give a
verbal alert when coming into contact with ‘dead body scent’. The presence of
tangible material is not required to produce the response merely the scent
itself. Pseudo scent is an artificially chemically produced product that its
manufacturers claim to resemble ‘dead body scent’. Although some cadaver
dog trainers have had limited success with its use in training, when tested on
my dogs they showed no interest and it is not used as a training aid for them.

In my role as advisor to the U.S. Justice Department I have facilitated
assessment of numerous cadaver search dog teams in the United States.
These dogs are exclusively trained using human cadaver sources. When I
introduced decomposing pig cadavers into training assessments 100 % of the
animals alerted to the medium. (The products were obtained from whole piglet
cadaver not processed food for human consumption). The result from
scientific experiments and research to date is suggestive that the scent of
human and pig decomposing material is so similar that we are unable to ‘train’
the dog to distinguish between the two. That is not to say that this may not be
possible in the future.

CADAVER SCENT

The odour target of cadaver is scientifically explained through ‘volatile organic
compounds’ that in a certain configuration are received by the dog as a
receptor.

Recognition then gives a conditioned response ‘ALERT’. Despite considerable research and analytical investigation the compounds cannot as yet be replicated in laboratory processes.

Therefore the ‘alert’ by dogs without a tangible source cannot be forensically proven at this time. Cadaver scent cannot readily be removed by cleaning as the compounds adhere to surfaces.

The scent can be ‘masked’ by bleach and other strong smelling odours but
the dog’s olfactory system is able to isolate the odours and identify specific
compounds’ and mixes.

Cadaver scent contamination may be transferred in numerous scenarios. Any contact with a cadaver which is then passed to any other material may be recognised by the dog causing a ‘trigger’ indication.

Vol. IX p. 2480

EVRD

‘Eddie’ The Enhanced Victim Recovery Dog (E.V.R.D.) will search for and
locate human remains and body fluids including blood in any environment or
terrain.

The initial training of the dog was conducted using human blood and
still born decomposing piglets. The importance of this is that the dog is
introduced to the scent of a decomposing body NOT FOODSTUFF. This
ensures that the dog disregards the ‘bacon sandwich’ and ‘kebab’ etc that is
ever present in the background environment.

Therefore the dog would remain efficient searching for a cadaver in a café where the clientele were sat eating bacon sandwiches. He has additionally trained exclusively using
human remains in the U.S.A. in association with the F.B.I. The enhanced
training of the dog has also involved the use of collection of ‘cadaver scent’
odor from human corpses using remote technical equipment which does not
contact the subject. This method is comparable to the simulation of cross
contamination. It does however differ in that the remote scent samples
recovery does not involve subject matter and therefore is a ‘pure’ scent
sample. The dog has since initial training gained considerable experience in
successfully operationally locating human remains and evidential forensic
material.

The E.R.V.D. has successfully in training and in operational casework located
Human cadaders, whether in the whole or parts thereof, deposited surface or
sub-surface to a depth of approximately 1 metre shortly after death (though
precise times are not determinable) to the advanced stages of decomposition
and putrefaction through the skeletal. This includes incinerated remains even if
large quantities of accelerant have been involved. The dog has successfully in
training and in operational casework located a human cadavers in water either
from the bank siade or when deployed in a boat.

The dog has also been trained to identify cadaver scent contamination where
there is no physically retrievable evidence, due to scent adhering to previous
material such as carpet or the upholstery in motor vehicles.

This may be achieved by the dog being deployed directly to the subject area or by scent
samples being taken by remote means on sterile gauze pads. The gauze
pads are then ‘screened’ in a line – up formation with the inclusion of a number
of control samples and blank sterile pads.

The dog will alert to the presence of cadaver scent whether it is at source or
some distance away from a deposition site. This enables the use of the dog to
identify the venting or exhaust channels of the scent through fissures in
bedrock or watercourses. A geophysical survey of the area will then reduce
the size of the search area.

The dog may be used to screen clothing, vehicles or property in a suitable
environment. This is completed in a scent discrimination exercise where
controls may be included to increase assurity.

Vol IX p. 2481

FALSE ALERTS

‘False’ positives are always a possibility; to date Eddie has not so indicated
operationally or in training.

In six years of operational deployment in over 200 criminal case searches the dog has never alerted to meat based and specifically pork foodstuffs designed for human consumption. Similarly the dog has never alerted to ‘road kill’, that is any other dead animal.

My experience as a trainer is that false alerts are normally caused by handler
cueing. All indications by the dog are preceded by a change in behaviour.

This increased handler confidence in the response. This procedure also stops
handlers ‘cueing’ and indication. The dogs are allowed to ‘free search’ and
investigate areas of interest.

The handler does not influence their behaviour other than to direct the search.

STU MACHINE

I have developed the training of the E.V.R.D. to include the screening of scent
pads taken from motor vehicles, property or scenes by a Scent Transference
Unit. Operational use of the STU is in a developmental and evaluative stage
used in conjunction with selective FBI casework. The unis is in a two-part
design. The main body is a battery operated electrical device that draws air in
at to the front and exhausts through the rear. There is no ‘re-circulation’ of air
within the unit. The second part is a ‘grilled’ hood that fits to the main body. A
sterile gauze pad is fitted into the hood. When operated, the STU draws air
through the hood and the sterile gauze pad and exhausts through ports to the
rear. ‘Scent’ is trapped in the gauze, which may then be forensically stored for
use within scent discrimination exercises.

The STU is cleaned following use in such a manner that no residual scent is
apparent. This is checked by control measures where the dog is allowed to
search a given area where the STU is secreted. Any response by the dog
would suggest contamination. Tests have shown that the decontamination
procedures are effective in this case with the dog NOT alerting to the device
when completed. Use of the STU is considered when subject vehicles,
property, clothing, premises are to be forensically protected from
contamination by the dog, and for covert deployment. At all other times best
practice would be for the dog to be given direct access.

EVRD OPERATIONAL CASEWORK EXAMPLES

Northern Ireland, UK
A missing person, last seen returning from church, on foot, in N. Ireland. The
search of suspects ‘burnt out vehicle’ by forensic scientists did not reveal any
evidence. A search by the E.V.R.D. identified a position in the rear passenger
foot well where the dog alerted to the presence of human material. A sample
was taken and when analysed revealed the victims’ DNA. The enquiry then
concentrated its efforts on the suspect and the E.V.R.D. located the body of
the woman in a river bank deposition site. Further searches identified a

Vol. IX p. 2482

location where the E.V.R.D. alerted in the front bedroom of the offenders
empty next door dwelling house. When interviewed the suspect admitted that
the body had lain in the room for 1 hour prior to disposal. Forensic teams
were unable to extract any forensic evidence despite being shown the exact
position.

Wiltshire, UK
A female was abducted by her ex-boyfriend. Intelligence suggested that her
ex-boy friend had taken her to his house. A search by the EVRD of the house
resulted in small blood stains being alert indicated and forensically confirmed
as her blood. The suspect, a builder, was in possession of a van. This was
searched and the EVRD dog alerted to a ‘wacker plate’, spirtit level, and
shovel. A site was identified where the suspect had been working. The EVRD
then located the body deposition site in an area of a garbage base that had
been prepared by the suspect. He had returned with the dead girl, dug a
grave in the centre, placed the body in the hole, replaced the spoil and then
used the shovel, wacker plate and spirit level to return the ground to its
original state.

Devon, UK
A female was abducted and her whereabouts were unknown. The suspect
was a bus driver. An initial search by the E.V.R.D. alerted at a location near
to a sighting of the suspect in suspicious circumstances. A forensic search at
the alert location revealed a small button off of the girls clothing in long grass.
The offender confessed to the murder and confirmed her body had been
initially temporarily placed at the dog’s alert location.

Cornwall, UK
A woman was reported missing by her partner. A search of the suspects
house by the EVRD was conducted who indicated on the living room carpet.
No forensic evidence was recovered. Subsequently a diary written by the
suspect was alert indicated by the dog. The diary had written extracts that the
offender had laid the victim on the carpet whilst dead, the diary had in fact
been written by the suspect having handled the body. This was confirmed by
the offender in interview.

New Mexico, U.S.A.
A witness reported having seen two men walk off into brush land carrying a
spade and a corpse.

The area was searched with the EVRD with no indications being forthcoming. Other assets were utilised and the body was found: buried at a depth of 8 feet, under the water table, 3 feet of cement and 5 feet of earth replaced on top the corpse that was wrapped in cling film.
There being no scent available to the dog to receive there was no forthcoming

Vol IX p. 2483

CSI HUMAN BLOOD DETECTING DOG

‘Keela’ The Crime Scene Investigation (C.S.I.) dog will search for and locate
exclusively human blood.

She will locate contaminated weapons, screen motor vehicles and items of clothing and examine crime scenes for human blood deposits.

She will accurately locate human blood on items that have been subjected to ‘clean up operations’ or having been subjected to several washing machine cycles. In training she has accurately located samples of blood on property up to thirty-six years old.

In order for the dog to locate the source the blood must have ‘dried’ in situ.

Any ‘wetting’ once dried will not affect the dog’s abilities. Blood that is
subjected to dilution by precipitation or other substantial water source prior to
drying will soak into the ground or other absorbent material. This may dilute
the scent to an unacceptable level for accurate location.

She is trained specifically using human blood obtained through the
haematology department at Sheffield Northern General Hospital. The blood
undergoes strict screening for disease and contamination prior to use. The
samples are from a wide range of ethnic backgrounds and are from both male
and female sources.

Keela’s training and licensing is based around the level of 1 positive screening
sample introduced into 200 control articles or 1 positive sample introduced
during 6 hours searching in relation to crime scenes or vehicles.